Beginning from Mark Payne's recent argument that Theocritean fiction does not adhere to real-world patterns, this study contends that Theocritus use of fiction is consistently applied in his poetry and that that consistent fiction, which I term "bucolic fiction," forms the basis for a reevaluation of the notion of "bucolic poetry." Once the grounds for reading the Idylls in terms of bucolic fiction are established, the study examines the effect of bucolic fiction on Theocritus' poetry through an analysis of Idylls 1, 2, 5, and 10. The individual analyses of the four Idylls demonstrate the consistent application of bucolic fiction, from which perspective a new interpretation of the Idyll is then offered. The examination of Idyll 1 argues for Daphnis' role as an exemplar of Theocritus' new form of bucolic poetry, based on bucolic fiction. In considering Idyll 2, the study argues for an expanded definition of "bucolic." Though aptly described as an urban mime, Idyll 2 challenges views of bucolic by conforming to the pattern of bucolic fiction and by including several bucolic references. The discussion of Idyll 5 affords an opportunity to consider how mimesis is integrated into the fully fictional world. Finally, the bucolic status of Idyll 10 is considered. This Idyll enacts a bucolic experiment by placing a bucolic character in confrontation with a non-bucolic character. Their differing fictional perspectives expose the inner workings of bucolic fiction.