Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) has become the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) since Gould et al.  claimed so whilst the most traditional way to measure FFR is invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Such modality is invasive and expense-costing according to DEFER (Deferral Versus Performance of PTCA in Patients Without Documented Ischemia) study , half of the patient underwent ICA has no ischemia risk at all. Thus non-invasive, cheap and reliable ways to alternate such operation is demanding and significant and FFRCFD is a promising candidate. By discretizing reconstructed coronary geometry from computed tomography angiography (CTA) and imposing circuit analogy coronary boundary condition, a finite element fluid solver or spectral element solver could reveal the velocity and pressure field inside coronary artery tree and hence FFR could be non-invasive acquired. Nonetheless, the computational cost to perform such method is prohibitive for most of the medical research centers or hospitals, greatly limiting the potential beneficiaries. The motivation of this work is to validate the accuracy of a one-dimensional (1D) reduced-order model of three-dimensional (3D) full order Navier-Stokes equations where the former one could be performed on a personal computer within a couple of minutes. The results show an agreement between high and low fidelity FFR from 3D and 1D pressure and velocity, demonstrating that the 1D solver could be used as a alternative to the 3D solver at fraction of the cost. Moreover, a sensitivity study is shown by varying parameters within a proper physiological range. Robustness of 1D solver has shown assuming proper outflow boundary conditions. This work also provides evidence that the 1D solver can be used reliably and efficiently in the clinical setting for FFR predictions.
"3D/1D COMPUTED FRACTIONAL FLOW RESERVE COMPARISON IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE"
Fluid, Thermal, and Chemical Processes Theses and Dissertations.
Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library.